Stockholm is Sweden's capital and largest city, Sweden's political, economic, cultural, transportation center and major ports. Its congestion charging policy was formally implemented in 2007, and the low emission zone policy was implemented in 1996.
Time: August 2007
Exemptions: Multiple Exemptions
Charging Hours: 6:00 am–6:30 pm Monday to Friday
Rate: SEK 35 (about RMB 25.3) charged on passing gantries during rush hours Daily Maximum of SEK 105 (about RMB 75.9)
Revenue Allocation: Dedicated to infrastructure development in Stockholm. Details of revenue allocation shown on tax bill.
Congestion Charging zone: The Stockholm government decided that the best solution would be to install monitoring equipment on the bridges and form a circle around the inner city as the charging boundary. This boundary contains 18 toll gates, which are the gateways to the CC zone, as shown in Figure1.
Implementation Outcomes of the CC Policy:
The implementation of the CC policy has had obvious positive impacts on the environment, traffic conditions, and economy in Stockholm.
Environmental Impact: After implementation of the congestion tax, vehicle emissions in the inner city havefallen by 10–15 percent (depending on the specific pollutant), and air pollutants have fallen by 10–14 percentdue to reduced traffic volumes and travel distances.
Effect on Traffic: One of the objectives of the implement CC in Stockholm is to reduce traffic volumes. As shown in Figure2 , traffic volumes across the boundary to/from the inner city have fallen dramatically, both during the trial in 2006 and after official operation began in 2007. Before 2006, daily average traffic across the cordon was consistently above 450,000 vehicles. Several weeks after the trial began in 2006, traffic volume had dropped by about 22 percent. After the trial ended on July 31, 2006, there was a small increase in traffic volume, but to lower levels than those seen prior to the trial; in other words, the impact of the trial continued. This may indicate that some vehicle users developed their new travel habits during the trial and kept to them even after the trial ended. After the charging scheme was officially implemented in August 2007, the traffic volume fell back to the same level as during the trial period in 2006.
The LEZ was set up in July 1996, and was de ned as a 10 km by 10 km area centered on Stockholm’s city center, as shown in Figure 5-7. Trucks and buses that are not in compliance with the emission standard are not allowed to enter the zone. Since 1996, when this policy was implemented, the vehicle emissions standard has been continually raised. The latest restrictions are as follows:
Vehicles of Euro II standard or lower can no longer enter LEZ
Vehicles of Euro III standard can enter LEZ till the end of 2015
Vehicles of Euro IV standard can enter LEZ till the end of 2016
Vehicles of Euro V standard and Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEFVs) can enter LEZ till the end of 2020.
Implementation Effects of the Low Emission Zone
After implementation of LEZ, concentrations of both NO2 and PM within the area dropped substantially.
noise in the LEZ has been reduced because EEFVs now represent a larger share of vehicles within the zone.
Emissions of PM from heavy-duty vehicles in the zone decreased about 40 percent by 2000, after four years of LEZ enforcement, as shown in Figure 4.
Continuous monitoring of the PM from exhaust emissions within and outside the LEZ from 1996 to 2001 showed that the actual reductions occurring outside the zone after the LEZ policy was implemented in 1996 were greater than inside the zone.