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Time: April to June, 2016
Methodology: Attitude surveys via online platform and face-to-face interviews
Region: Residents and businesses registered within the 6th Ring Road, especially within the 3rd Ring Road who are mostly affected by the policy
Responses: Over 10,000 responses with 8460 from Beijing residents and 1798 from businesses respectively.
Beijing Residents: Basic Information
Public Agency Employees
Retired or unemployed
Understanding of CC Policy
Expectations about Policy Effects
Beijing Residents: Analysis Results
1. 23% of our respondents support the CC policy, while 48 % opposing it. The percentage of people who have a neutral attitude is 29%. The opposing rate of Beijing respondents is similar to Milan before policy implementation (48%), and lower than London (55%).
2. Implementation of the CC policy has obvious potential benefits. 35% of the car users would shift to public transport, and 11% would reduce their travel frequency or change travel schedule.
Car users who would shift to public transport
Car users who would reduce their travel frequency or change travel schedule
3. The better the public know about the CC policy, the more supportive they are. Only 18% of the respondents stated they know well about the CC policy, and among them, 41% are supportive of the policy, much higher than those who know little about the policy (19%).
（81.6%）Know little about policy
（18.4%）Know well about policy
4. Vehicle owners and those who seldom travel by public transport would be less supportive than others. The respondents with no cars tend to support more on CC policy (32%) than those with one car (19%) and with two cars (17%). People who ride public transport more often would more likely have a positive attitude (27%) than those who don’t (20%).
5. Respondents aged 30-40 would less likely have a positive attitude compared to other age group. Only 19% of them would support the policy. This may be because this group has the highest car usage rate every day (68%) and has the least knowledge about the policy (only 17% of them know well about the policy).
6. For workforces, public agency employees and enterprise employees have the highest opposing rates, which are 51% and 49% respectively. The opposing rates of self-employed and freelances are lower than 45%. Retired or unemployed people would much more likely oppose the policy (52%) than students (35%).
Public Agency Employees
Retired or unemployed
7. More than half (52%) of our respondents expect that revenues raised from the charges should be spent on improving public transport or used for public transport subsidies. Improving infrastructure for non-motorized transport is also a preferred way of using CC revenue in addition to public transport.
Improve public transport
Used for public transport subsidies
Optimize road network
Intelligent Transport Management System construction
Improve infrastructure for non-motorized modes
8. Respondents think the primary reason to support CC policy is the co-benefit in air quality improvement when implementing CC to mitigate congestion. And the second reason is that “Charges can be used to improve public transport and road infrastructure”. The top two opposing reasons are “CC would impose heavier burden on the private vehicle owners” and “the government should be more focused on urban planning and traffic management”.
41.8% of the businesses have more than 100 employees, while 19.7% have less than 10 employees. Businesses are distributed relatively evenly within the 5th Ring Road. Among those, 22.9% are located within the 2nd Ring Road, and 18.4% are located between 2nd and 3rd Ring Road.
1. 37.5% of our business respondents have a positive attitude to the policy, higher than the general public.
2. Businesses located within the 2nd Ring Road would be more supportive than businesses outside. Businesses located in the areas between the 2nd Ring Road and the 5th Ring Road have similar support rates, around 35%, between each Ring Road.
Outside the 2nd Ring Road
Within the 2nd Ring Road
3. Between different categories of businesses, industries like Transport, Storage and Post, Management of Water, Environment and Facilities, Hotels and Catering Services, Education, and International Organization would more likely support the policy, while Culture, Sports and Entertainment, Real Estate, and Leasing and Commerce would tend to have a negative attitude.
4. 11.0% of the businesses are located in the area with good public transport system. Among them, 50.0% are supportive of the CC policy, twice as much as those areas with insufficient public transport services (15.2% of the businesses are located in the public transport insufficient areas, and this group has a supportive rate of only 23.9%).
(11.0%)Comprehensive PT Infrastructure
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